Canine Leptospirosis in Dog
Leptospirosis is an important world known zoonosis (an animal disease that can be transmitted to humans). Although there are many pathogenic serotypes, only two are considered as most important as far asare concerned. Serotype Canicola, related to acute interstitial nephritis and Serotype Icterohaemorraghiae which affects the liver, provoking ictericia and hemorrhage. The way of contagion is probably by eating or inhaling infected material, especially the urine of a sick animal. In mild cases you will observe a slight disorder that will only last a couple of days. More severe cases present fever almost since the beginning of the infestation, with depression and extreme thirst. There can be vomits, abdominal pain and kidney inflammation. In uremic cases, you observe mouth &/or tongue ulcers, generally accompanied by bad breath. On occasions, the dog shows signs of ictericia although that is observed more frequently in the infection with the Serotype Icterohaemorraghiae.
The infection by Leptospira Icterohaemorraghiae follows a similar initial course than that of the Serotype Canicola, which lasts approximately 1 week. After that, they both follow different courses. Meanwhile the latter produces nephropathy, the first one is a hepathocellular degeneration with necrosis of variable intensity. Sudden fever, ictericia and extreme exhaustion often show up, as well as vomiting, thirst and diarrhea tainted in blood. There can be petechial hemorrhages in the mucous membranes of the oral or conjunctive cavity which can be very congested. The State of the dog deteriorates rapidly. The sudden appearance of victories yet and fever and a young animal can suggest that a disease is present. Vaccination is extremely important and the first shot can be applied when the puppy is 12 weeks old. This vaccination and the subsequent ones must be done under a strict veterinary control.