The underlying principle behind immersion is the only point which distinguishes it from items 1 and 2. The dog must be confronted with the unpleasant stimulus until the unacceptable response stops. It entails holding back the dog and forcing him to face the unpleasant stimulus head on. This way, not only is the negative response eliminated, it also eradicates any response related to escape and avoidance.
Immersion is recommended for moderate fears only. The therapeutic method of immersion is not risk-free, and could result in more intense responses than when you first started. Example: when a dog is startled by a vehicle, he barks. The dog is then brought to a place where there is a lot of traffic. The dog is kept on ato avoid his running away and barking. The dog must be kept in place, at the same spot, as long as he remains excited and nervous. He is only rewarded when he calms down.
4. Eliminating the cause: For certain problems, all you need to do is eliminate the cause. For example, a dog living inside thesees passing in the street and starts to bark. The solution is simple: just close the curtains so the dog cannot see outside.
5. Extinction: AII that needs to be done is to eliminate the reinforcement which allowed for the development of the dog's reaction in the first place. Example: Like you, when the doorbell rings, the dog gets up to answer it. The idea is to create a similar situation with another person's help. This person rings the doorbell every ten seconds. Do not get up to answer it. In certain cases, all you have to do is withhold the reward for the dog to cease his unacceptable behavior.
6. Successive approximation: The objective is to successively reinforce attempts at behavior which come closest to the one required (peace and quiet, for example). The principle consists in rewarding your dog when he is calm, even when there are children playing outside nearby. Start with 1 or 2 seconds, and gradually increase the duration until you have attained the desired tranquility level. It is important to select a behavior technique wisely, and to adapt it to the situation. Identifying the clinical signs of the problem allows for better selection of an adequate technique.