Reproduction and Breeding

If you want to work as a breeder, you must know that the criteria to which the male and female dog must respond are different depending on the breed. In general, these criteria must be confirmed after a show and many breeds must pass the established working tests. Naturally, they should have the appropriate age. An expert breeder will show you how to choose the most adequate partner. You can inform on all the necessary conditions to have kennels by reading the legislation in force.

The female dogs are generally in heat twice a year, in spring and autumn. Only in this time can they mate with a male. If you lack of experience in the subject, you will know when the female dog is in heat because of her increased interests in males and because her vulva has swollen and got red. Her vagina will segregate a pink or red liquid. The heat usually lasts 14 to 21 days, and it is a bit longer in young female dogs than in older ones. The most favorable moment to cover the female dog is between 9th and 13th day of heat. The precise moment depends on the age of the female dog and varies with each individual. It is better to take the female dog to the male dog than the opposite. In an unknown environment, the male gets more interested in his environment than in the bitch. Once the intercourse has happened, the dogs remain together a moment (perfectly together) because the penis of the get swollen and the animal can not remove it from the vagina until he relaxes.

The pregnancy lasts 58 to 65 days. Twenty days after the intercourse, the fertilized egg is implanted in the uterus mucus. Rapidly the placenta, which will nourish the egg, forms. During the gestation, the mother's metabolism increases, her needs of calcium and phosphorus increase, the blood circulation is relatively overcharged. The growing of the fetus dilates the uterus, which is in the lower part of the abdominal cavity. The mammary gland grows and the nipples become clearly visible among the hair.

A pregnant bitch must exercise, not excessively, and must receive food rich in vitamins and mineral substances. A month before the puppies' birth, the bitch can be administered a soft anti-parasite so that puppies can are parasite-free in their mother's womb.

Naturally, during this period, you should prepare everything for the puppies' birth. If possible prepare a box for this purpose. This box should not be too tall or short so that the puppies may not fall down.

In general, there should not be any reason to intervene at the moment of the birth the bitch does it by herself. The female dogs of prognathous breeds (for example, French Bulldog, Bulldogs, Pekinese, Boxers, etc.) are not capable by themselves to take the puppies out of the placenta and cut the umbilical cord. This type of bitches needs help. Clean the puppy and cut the umbilical cord. In any case, have the telephone number of your veterinarian at hand. If six hours after the beginning of the labor, any puppy is born, then this means that there are complications that only the veterinarian could solve. If the pains stop, the puppies can be dead inside their mother.

In this case the veterinarian will be of great help. Normally a shot of post-pituitary hormones is enough to resume the pains and the contractions.

Some days or some hours after the birth there may be convulsions. This is called eclampsia, in other words a drastic fell of the calcium and phosphorus rate in the blood. In this case, the animal must receive immediately a calcium injection.

It is important that puppies eat from their mother's milk right after birth. The colostrums of the first days are not only more nutritious than milk that will be secreted later, but they also contain antibodies of the maternal organism. These antibodies transferred to puppies will protect them from infectious diseases.

Due to several reasons, the mother may not have enough milk or she may run out of it quickly. Then the puppies may have to be fed artificially. Nowadays you can get artificial milk similar to the maternal milk in specialized stores. To know how to proceed with a correct nutrition, consult a veterinarian. After each meal, rub with a wet piece of cotton the womb and the anal region of the dogs fed artificially, so they can defecate. This will replace the massage that the bitch makes with her lickings.

When the dogs grow with their mother, they generally start ingesting solid food towards the end of the fifth week (sometimes this does not start until the third or fourth week). By the sixth week, you can give the puppies oat or rice soup with ground or chopped beef and vegetables. By the seventh or eighth week at the most the puppies must get used to take solid food and then the mother can stop breastfeeding them definitively.

In the breeds for which a standard establishes to cut the tail, said intervention should be carried out when they are two or three days old.

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