There are different types of structural components in a building
The ceiling. It will be necessary to distinguish the revetment and the frame. The frame will be the one that supports the loads that affect the ceiling and which will lay weight on the walls and pillars.
The beams. These consist of the horizontal elements that rest over the floor. The beams lean their weight over the pillars and are often times made out of metal or wood.
The walls. The walls of a building orreceive the weight of the different ceilings and floors and pass this weight over to the foundation.
Concrete and steel floors and roofs. A roof is in essence the cover of a building. When a high and big building is constructed, the intermediate parts consist of the inferior floor roof and the floor of the superior, which is then denominated to the last floor. Concrete and steel roofs are done horizontally and are destined to carry weight by flexion and at the same time put their weight on the walls or beams.
There are two types of concrete and steel.
Those that are unidirectional and bi-directional.
- Unidirectional is forged concrete and steel which is formed by beams of different types of materials such as wood, metal etc, and these transmit all the own weight of the concrete and steel and the over load to the support beams or walls.
- The bi-directional concrete and steel is made out several elements, in between which the curved roofs and blocks of lighter cement are placed, in a way so that the weight is transmitted through the iron elements to the top of the pillars.
The pillars. The pillars of a building are used to substitute the walls in the transmission of the load of the concrete and steel ceiling. The pillars absorb the weight of the support beams and transmit the vertical ones to the foundation.
The foundation. The foundation is the inferior or bottom part of a building that penetrates the terrain it is on; this carries the weight of the building and supports it. The type of foundation a construction has depends on the characteristics of the ground and of the type of building it will be. We must take into account on the other hand, that the cracks in structural elements, like the pillars and support beams, on n the horizontal components are really troublesome when the direction of these is perpendicular or diagonal to the structural element, no matter where the building is. A vertical overload (caused by debris for example) over the structural vertical elements can cause horizontal flexion. It can cause the pillars to sag and cause damage to the support walls. If this overweight happens over horizontal elements, it will cause a deflection of the beams, which can at the same time cause the collapsing, leaning or sagging of the vertical elements that are holding it up. There are certain things that a building will do sometimes to let us know that it is going to fall such as with creaks, rustles that would suggest that the materials of the building are cracking and sliding inside the existing holes.