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Praise. The use of the term 'praise' in this home page

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means giving the dog a verbal word or phrase that the dog is conditioned to associate with approval. Different large breed dog information center. Praise is given with the voice so the tone of voice can indicate just how pleased the handler is with the dog and will positively reinforce the activity with which the praise is linked. Praise may be an event marker or a primary reinforcer. See Event Marker below. The timing of praise is crucial to its effectiveness in training. When, in this home page, an event marker when used with praise is linked with 'click' , it refers to the situation where 'click' and 'praise' are being used in the same way, ie as an event marker. It is very important to understand that praise is not just the usual words used to praise. It is only praise if your dog responds positively to it If you dog doesn't respond to praise then praise is not a primary reinforcer to this dog - the words used to praise this dog are mere words - just event markers or secondary reinforcers if they're linked to primary reinforcer (food or toys). This concept is an important one to understand. Just because you say, "Good Boy" doesn't make it praise.

NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT. The removal of an aversive event contingent on a behavior with the goal of increasing the likelihood of the behavior in the future (1). Example: The Koehler technique for teaching the retrieve involves releasing an ear pinch or terminating a shock at the moment the dog clasps the dumbbell in its mouth. If the dog does what is required the pain is removed. Equally, a dog may have learned that escaping from an enclosure relieved the restriction he was feeling and having been negatively reinforced will escape to relieve that uncomfortable feeling again. Negative reinforcement can help us teach the dog eg, the dog is released from confinement only when he is silent or as another example, when an uncomfortable physical force is used to guide the dog into a 'sit', 'down', etc - when the dog complies, the force is removed. The use of the hands/feet in this situation which doesn't involve discomfort to the dog (indeed is pleasant to the dog) is not negative reinforcement because it is not averse to the dog.

PUNISHMENT. A punishment is any stimulus that decreases the probability of the response that it follows. Punishment only seeks to stop undesirable behavior - it does not teach a new desired behavior. The undesirable response that the Punishment was designed to decrease may only last for a short duration or may only occur when the 'punisher' is present. Think of the traffic ticket for speeding (punishment), the driver may slow down while the memory of the fine is still present or whenever the driver sees a traffic cop but after a time, the driver will return to his same old bad habits.

POSITIVE PUNISHMENT. The giving of an aversive event contingent on a behavior with the goal of decreasing the likelihood of the behavior in the future (1). Example: Dog gets up on the 'Down Stay' in an obedience class, the handler immediately storms towards the dog, glaring at it, gives the dog a harsh scruff shake and screams 'No!' and physically forces the dog back into the 'Down'.

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